Ling 253 Extra Credit

Ling 253 Extra Credit.

I don’t understand this English question and need help to study.

Hello there, I need help on this paper. everything you need is explained below and I have the example as well.

For this assignment, you can analyze the verb tenses in a text (see Chapter 5, Exercise 6, p. 67). (the book is online and called Top 20 great grammar.)

I chose a topic and it is all the way to the bottom. It’s called “WHY WE CRAVE HORROR MOVIES”. Copy and paste the text into a table on the left side (see attached). You can copy each paragraph into each table or copy and paste based on verb tense shifts. On the right side, identify the verb tense and aspect. Then, give a reason for the tense and aspect of each verb. The homework needs to be about 2 pages single spaced (see sample) and identify the verbs correctly. If you have questions or are unsure about the verb tenses, please come see me.


Vickie Mellos


October 3, 2016

Analyze Real Language for Verb Tenses (Exercise 6, p. 67)

Tomato pickers persuade companies to sign on to human rights movement

By Lois K. Solomon, Sun Sentinel



Reasons for the tenses used

IMMOKALEE, Fla. — Sweat drenched his long-sleeve shirt and soaked his thick black hair. Lucas Benitez, 17, quick on his feet and newly arrived from Mexico, finished staking a row of tomatoes on a scorched southwest Florida farm and stopped to wait for his co-workers to catch up.

Benitez recalled how his supervisor drove a pickup closer to confront him. He wanted Benitez to help unload a truck instead of taking a time-wasting break. But even more, the boss wanted to show who was in control, and it was not the teen.

In the first 2 paragraphs the simple past tense is used. It is describing a story of what happened to the 17-year old farm worker.

Benitez, 120 pounds, insisted on staying put. Why should he be punished for his speed, when he was accomplishing the same tasks as the rest of the crew? The 200-pound boss threw a punch, but the teen blocked it with one hand, a tomato stake in the other, ready for a fight. He looked the boss in the eye and saw wide-eyed shock.

This paragraph mostly uses the simple past, but in the second sentence, the author uses the past progressive (was accomplishing). This tense and aspect were used because it is describing what Benitez was doing at that time up until the point when the boss was trying to punish him by not giving him a break.

“It was the first time anyone had said anything to him,” recalled Benitez, now 40.

In this paragraph, the author switches to the past perfect simple (had said). I think he is interrupting the story to point out that prior to this event, none of the farm workers had ever talked back to the boss.

A farmworker-led movement, with Benitez among its leaders, was about to ignite.

Benitez’s small act of defiance planted a symbolic seed among tomato farmworkers in Immokalee, an impoverished farm town filled with empty lots, trailer homes, crowing roosters and scrubby palmetto trees. The migrants who sought work each day staking and picking tomatoes were about to take on the farm owners and crew leaders and the corporations that purchased the tomatoes they picked.

The simple past is used to narrate what happened after that event, namely the start of a worker-led movement to fight against their harsh work conditions.

Those tomatoes arrive almost daily in kitchens and restaurants across the country. Though most Americans don’t realize it, almost every Florida tomato they eat comes from a field near Immokalee, just two hours from Fort Lauderdale.

In this paragraph, the simple present is used. It is describing facts/general truths or repeated actions. It is a fact that most of our tomatoes come from Florida.

The workers who pick tomatoes have spent more than 20 years on a campaign for dignity and fair pay, a campaign that has gained momentum in recent years as more food retailers, such as Fresh Market, sign on. Farmworker advocates are now broadening the campaign to other items in grocery produce departments, including strawberries and peppers.

The workers have succeeded, against incredible odds, in getting some of the biggest corporations in the country to recognize their plight.

In this paragraph, the author begins to use the present perfect simple (have spent, has gained). This tense is used because this paragraph describes actions of this campaign which started in the past and continues now and for actions that have just been completed. The time expressions used are “more than 20 years” and “in recent years.”

The present progressive (are now broadening) is also used to describe something in progress right now.

The last paragraph uses present perfect simple (have succeeded) to describe a past action that still has an effect on the present. They have already succeeded and this has a positive effect in the present.

the article is:


Stephen King

I think that we’re all mentally ill; those of us outside the asylums only hide it a little better -and maybe not all that much better, after all. We’ve all known people who talk to themselves, people who sometimes squinch their faces into horrible grimaces when they believe no one is watching, people who have some hysterical fear- of snakes, the dark, the tight place, the long drop…and, of course, those final worms and grubs that are waiting so patiently underground.

When we pay our four or five bucks and seat ourselves at tenth-row center in a theater showing a horror movie, we are daring the nightmare.

Why? Some of the reasons are simple and obvious. To show that we can, that we are not afraid, that we can ride this roller coaster. Which is not to say that a really good horror movie may not surprise a scream out of us at some point, the way we may scream when the roller coaster twists through a complete 360 or plows through a lake at the bottom of the drop. And horror movies, like roller coasters, have always been the special province of the young; by the time one turns 40 or 50, one’s appetite for double twists or 360-degree loops may be considerably depleted.

We also go to re-establish our feelings of essential normality; the horror movie is innately conservative, even reactionary. Freda Jackson as the horrible melting woman in Die, Monster, Die! confirms for us that no matter how far we may be removed from the beauty of a Robert Redford or a Diana Ross, we are still light-years from true ugliness.

And we go to have fun.

Ah, but this is where the ground starts to slope away, isn’t it? Because this is a very peculiar sort of fun, indeed. The fun comes from seeing others menaced-sometimes killed. One critic has suggested that if pro football has become the voyeur’s version of combat, then the horror film has become the modern version of the public lynching.

It is true that the mythic, “fairy-tale” horror film intends to take away the shades of gray.… It urges us to put away our more civilized and adult penchant for analysis and to become children again, seeing things in pure blacks and whites. It may be that horror movies provide psychic relief on this level because his invitation to lapse into simplicity, irrationality and even outright madness is extended so rarely. We are told we may allow our emotions a free rein…or no rein at all.

If we are all insane, then sanity becomes a matter of degree. If your insanity leads you to carve up women like Jack the Ripper or The Cleveland Torso Murderer, we clap you away in the funny farm (but neither of those two amateur-night surgeons was ever caught heh-heh-heh); if, on the other hand, your insanity leads you only to talk to yourself when you’re under stress or to pick your nose on your morning bus, then you are left alone to go about your business…though it is doubtful that you will ever be invited to the best parties.

The potential lyncher is in almost all of us (excluding saints, past and present; but then, most saints have been crazy in their, own ways), and every now and then, he has to be let loose to scream and roll around in the grass. Our emotions and our fears form their own body, and we recognize that it demands its own exercise to maintain proper muscle tone. Certain of these emotional muscles are accepted -even exalted- in civilized society; they are, of course, the emotions that tend to maintain the status quo of civilization itself. Love, friendship, loyalty, kindness-these are all the emotions that we applaud, emotions that have been immortalized in the couplets of Hallmark cards and in the verses (I don’t dare call it poetry) of Leonard Nimoy.

When we exhibit these emotions, society showers us with positive reinforcement; we learn this even before we get out of diapers. When, as children, we hug our rotten little puke of a sister and give her a kiss, all the aunts and uncles smile and twit and cry, “Isn’t he the sweetest little thing?” Such coveted treats as chocolate-covered graham crackers often follow. But if we deliberately slam the rotten little puke of a sister’s fingers in the door, sanctions follow-angry remonstrance from parents, aunts and uncles; instead of a chocolate-covered graham cracker, a spanking.

But anticivilization emotions don’t go away, and they demand periodic exercise. We have such “sick” jokes as “What’s the difference between a truckload of bowling balls and a truckload of dead babies? (You can’t unload a truckload of bowling balls with a pitchfork…a joke, by the way, that I heard originally from a ten-year-old). Such a joke may surprise a laugh or a grin out of us even as we recoil, a possibility that confirms the thesis: If we share a brotherhood of man, then we also share an insanity of man. None of which is intended as a defense of either the sick joke or insanity but merely as an explanation of why the best horror films, like the best fairy tales, manage to be reactionary, anarchistic, and revolutionary all at the same time.

The mythic horror movie, like the sick joke, has a dirty job to do. It deliberately appeals to all that is worst in us. It is morbidity unchained, our most base instincts let free, our nastiest fantasies realized …and it all happens, fittingly enough, in the dark. For those reasons, good liberals often shy away from horror films. For myself, I like to see the most aggressive of them -Dawn of the Dead, for instance -as lifting a trap door in the civilized forebrain and throwing a basket of raw meat to the hungry alligators swimming around in that subterranean river beneath.

Why bother? Because it keeps them from getting out, man. It keeps them down there and me up here. It was Lennon and McCartney who said that all you need is love, and I would agree with that.

As long as you keep the gators fed.

Ling 253 Extra Credit

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