In The Leadership Challenge, authors Kouzes and Posner (2007) report on their considerable surveys and research on the subject of leadership. They identify four characteristics most selected in their surveys of admired leadership: honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent. /0x4*
Honest: ?It?s clear that if people anywhere are to willingly follow someone?whether it?s into battle or into the boardroom, the front o?ce or the front lines?they ?rst want to assure themselves that the person is worthy of their trust? (p. 32).
Forward-Looking: ?People expect leaders to have a sense of direction and a concern for the future of the organization? (p. 33).
Inspiring: ?It?s not enough for a leader to have a dream. A leader must be able to communicate the vision in ways that encourage people to sign on for the duration and excite them about the cause? (p. 34).
Competent: ?To enlist in a common cause, people must believe that the leader is competent to guide them where they?re headed. They must see the leader as having relevant experience and sound judgment? (p. 35).
These characteristics supplement the reading from Chapter 16 of Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, reinforcing the contention that e?ective leaders must be careful to safeguard the positive attributes of leadership and guard against the ominous dark side of leadership.
Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). Jossey-Bass.
Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
Read the minicase, ?You Can?t Make Stu? Like This Up,? at the end of Chapter 16.
You Can?t Make Stuff Like This Up
Steve once worked as a regional sales director for a large health insurance company called Blue Star Health. Blue Star Health was once quite successful but had become complacent over the past five years. Competitors gained market share using aggressive marketing and sales tactics, and Blue Star was selling antiquated products and using inefficient processes for settling claims. With falling revenues and margins, Blue Star became an acquisition target and was bought by Anthum, a Fortune 100 company. At the conclusion of the deal Anthum brought in an injection of cash, a reputation for operational excellence, and a new vice president of sales, Jim Blaylock. The CEO of Anthum described Jim as bright, experienced, successful, and ?more energetic than the Energizer Bunny.? Jim had joined the corporation immediately after college; because of his ?potential? the company sent him to law school and rapidly promoted him into increasingly responsible positions. Senior management had tremendous confidence in Jim?s leadership abilities and appointed him as the vice president of sales in Blue Star Health, even though he had no previous sales experience.
Steve was initially impressed with Jim?s freshness and energy; he was constantly touting ?midwestern values? and the ?work ethic of the Midwest.? However, the sales management team soon became disenchanted with his views: Steve and his sales team were working 70 to 80 hours a week and becoming exhausted and frazzled. Moreover, Jim?s interactions with internal and external clients were lessons in poor human relations. He seemed to seek confrontations, and as time passed, his behavior became steadily more extreme. Jim harangued people, ignored appointments and made no excuses for missing them, made promises he never kept, called sales directors at 6:00 a.m. with insignificant questions, and abused brokers. Those who questioned Jim?s leadership were summarily dismissed.
One day Jim asked Steve to arrange a meeting with a broker at 9:00 p.m. The broker was from a large benefit house and was older, and the meeting time was late. However, he was a longtime personal friend of Steve?s and as a courtesy agreed to the meeting. Jim did not show up for the appointment and would not answer Steve?s calls to his cell phone. After an hour, Steve and the broker went home. When Steve asked Jim why he missed the appointment, he said he was drinking with a friend and did not think the meeting with the broker was important. Jim refused to apologize to the broker and was surprised when business with the broker?s organization came to an end.
Jim loved working on high-visibility projects and landed an opportunity to convert the membership of another acquired company to Anthum. This was an important project for Anthum, and shortly thereafter Jim set up an elaborate ?war room? in which all sales planning and action would take place. He asked Steve to lead the conversion project, repeatedly announcing that the acquisition was to garner new contracts and to bring quality employees into the organization. At this point Steve had over 70 direct reports in five different locations across the state
and some aggressive sales targets. It would be impossible for Steve to hit his revenue numbers and run the conversion project. But Jim cut Steve no slack, and the computer system intended to convert the contracts did not work. Jim spent no time with any of the newly acquired sales team members, and as a result they showed no interest in working for Anthum. Yet Jim made grandiose statements about the quality of the sales force at the acquired company, which implied the current sales employees were unsatisfactory and fostered a sense of mistrust in both sales organizations.
Because of Jim?s shoddy treatment, the long hours, and poor sales and invoicing processes, the morale of the sales team began to plummet. Tantrums and tears occurred frequently, and Steve spent a lot of time smoothing ruffled feathers and telling team members that things would get better over time. But there was only so much Steve could do, and as team members began to quit, Jim blamed Steve for the decline in department morale. As the situation continued to deteriorate, Steve requested that Jim meet with the remaining staff to talk about their frustrations with Anthum. Jim opted to set up an all-employee breakfast at a local restaurant to address their concerns.
The night before the meeting a major snowstorm hit the city, and the streets were covered with a foot of snow. Some employees had to drive 40 miles to attend the meeting, but everyone made it to the restaurant. The only person missing was Jim, and Steve started calling him 10 minutes before the meeting start time to check on his status. Jim did not answer, so Steve began to call and leave messages every five minutes. Jim finally answered his phone 30 minutes after the meeting start time and told Steve that the reason he was not at the meeting was that he decided to go skiing and people would have to meet with him another day. He also asked Steve to quit bugging him by leaving messages every five minutes. Steve could do little to put a positive spin on this message, and the employees left the restaurant bitter and hurt. Of the 60 people who showed up for the meeting, only one was still with Anthum six months later. Jim never acknowledged his behavior and was ?shocked? at the turnover in the sales group. Despite the turnover and declining sales revenues, Jim was still considered the company?s darling, and it was commonly believed that the CEO tacitly condoned his behavior.
Was Jim Blaylock a destructive leader, a competent manager, a taskmaster, a figurehead, or a cheerleader? What data would you use to make this determination?
If Jim was an incompetent manager, what do you think were the underlying root causes of his incompetence?
Why do you think Jim was seen as a high-potential candidate? Why did the CEO still think he was a high performer?
What would you do if you were Jim?s boss and heard about the information described here?
What would you do if you were Steve?
Source: G. J. Curphy, A. Baldrica, and R. T. Hogan, Managerial Incompetence, unpublished manuscript, 2009.
Write a paper responding to the following questions related to the minicase.
How does Jim?s behavior depict the dark side of leadership described in Chapter 16 as it relates to ?bad leadership, managerial incompetence, and managerial derailment??
How would a leader exhibiting the four characteristics of admired leadership noted above by Kouzes and Posner respond in this case study, in contrast to Jim?s behavior?
Your paper should be 400?500 words in length and should include at least two citations from the text applying the text concepts to the leadership challenge. Use proper spelling, grammar, and APA style in your paper and for any sources cited. For questions on APA style, go to OCLS APA Writing Styles Guides.